• Asthma

    Asthma is a very common condition of the lungs; about 25 million Americans experience it. During regular breathing with asthma, the passages within the lungs can become narrow and cause noisy breathing and shortness of breath. This condition can be brought on or worsened by activity, exercise, cold weather,

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  • Aging and Swallowing

    Swallowing is a complex process that changes over time, and swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) can be associated with aging. Changes in the tongue, upper throat (pharynx), vocal cords and voice box (larynx), and lower throat (esophagus) occur with aging. It has been estimated that more than 20 percent

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  • Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease

    Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is an inflammatory condition caused by an uncontrolled immune system response that attacks the inner ear causing progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that usually starts in one ear and then affects the other ear. The body thinks a part of the inner ear should

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  • Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

    Acid reflux occurs when acidic stomach contents flow back into the esophagus, the swallowing tube that leads from the back of the throat to the stomach. In some children, when reflux happens so frequently and is so severe that it causes complications, it is known as pediatric gastroesophageal reflux

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  • Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is a rare yet severe condition that causes facial weakness or paralysis and a rash on the outer ear. The same virus that causes chickenpox and shingles, the varicella-zoster virus, can spread and affect the facial nerve, which controls the

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  • Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL)

    Hearing loss can be broadly separated into two categories: conductive (problems in delivering sound to the inner ear) and sensorineural (problems of the inner ear, or cochlea, and/or the auditory nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain). Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) happens when there is

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  • Hyperacusis

    Hyperacusis, or sensitive hearing, describes a problem in the way the brain’s central auditory processing center perceives noise, often leading to pain and discomfort. People with hyperacusis have a hard time tolerating sounds that are typically not loud to others, such as noise from running water,

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  • Graves’ Disease

    The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the front of the neck. It produces thyroid hormone, which controls your metabolism, temperature regulation, and keeps your muscles and organs working properly. Graves’ disease causes the thyroid gland to become overactive. It is an autoimmune

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  • GERD and LPR

    Acid reflux occurs when acidic stomach contents flow back into the esophagus, the swallowing tube that leads from the back of the throat to the stomach. When acid repeatedly “refluxes” from the stomach into the esophagus alone, it is known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, if the

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  • Cholesteatoma

    Cholesteatoma is an abnormal skin growth or skin cyst trapped behind the eardrum, or the bone behind the ear. Cholesteatomas begin as a build-up of ear wax and skin, which causes either a lump on the eardrum or an eardrum retraction pocket. Over time, the skin collects and eventually causes problems

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  • Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate

    A "cleft" means a split or separation. A cleft palate refers to the roof of your mouth with or without the lip being split as well. Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects. A child can be born with both a cleft lip and cleft palate, or a cleft in just one area. During normal fetal development

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  • Conductive Hearing Loss

    Hearing loss can be broadly separated into two categories: conductive and sensorineural (damage to tiny hair cells in the inner ear). Conductive hearing loss results when there is any problem in delivering sound energy to your cochlea, the hearing part in the inner ear. Common reasons for conductive

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  • Cricopharyngeal Muscle Dysfunction

    If the cricopharyngeal muscle (CPM) in your throat malfunctions or is impaired, this can cause you to have difficulty swallowing. The top valve of your esophagus (food pipe) is called the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), or pharyngoesophageal segment (PES). The CPM separates the esophagus and throat.

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  • Ankyloglossia (Tongue-tie)

    Ankyloglossia, which is also referred to as tongue-tie, is a condition where the tongue cannot move normally because it is attached to the floor of the mouth by the frenulum, which is too tight. The lingual frenulum is the band of tissue that attaches the undersurface of your tongue to the bottom part

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  • Zenker’s Diverticulum

    A Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) is a rare condition where an “outpouching” occurs where your throat meets your esophagus, the swallowing pipe that leads into your stomach. When this happens, a pouch forms and mucous, food, and/or liquid can become stuck instead of going down your esophagus and into

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  • Spasmodic Dysphonia

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a voice disorder that causes involuntary spasms or contractions of the vocal cords, interrupting speech and affecting the quality of a person’s voice. The voice may sound broken, strained, or breathy depending on the type of SD. The two most common types of SD are the adductor

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